Rabu, 13 Maret 2013

Analisis Masalah Pembiayaan Salam pada Perbankan Syariah di Indonesia



Oleh: Abrista Devi

BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

1.1  Latar Belakang
Keberadaan perbankan syariah merupakan sebuah alternatif bagi praktik perbankan konvensional. Pesatnya pertumbuhan perbankan syariah sudah seharusnya diiringi dengan perkembangan jenis produk dan variasi akad yang sesuai dengan prinsip syariah. Perkembangan produk ini diharapkan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan transaksi nasabah. Salah satu masalah penting yang dihadapi perbankan syariah adalah masalah variasi produk pembiayaan yang masih didominasi oleh murabahah, musyarakah, dan mudharabah. Padahal masih ada beragam akad lainnya yang bisa diimplementasikan.
Seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, perbankan syariah pun semakin berkembang. Data awal tahun 2009 menunjukkan bahwa bank syariah telah memiliki lima BUS (Bank Umum Syariah), yaitu BMI, BSM, BSMI, BRI Syariah (sejak November 2008 BRI Syariah di spin-off menjadi BUS), dan Bank Bukopin Syariah, serta 24 UUS dan 134 BPRS. Terlihat pula dalam data statistik perbankan syariah pada bulan Februari tahun 2009 tercatat total asset bank syariah sebesar Rp 52 triliun yang meliputi pangsa pasar bank syariah 2,10%. Perjalanan bank syariah semakin mendapat dukungan sejak disahkannya undang-undang perbankan syariah No.21 tahun 2008 tentang perbankan syariah pada 17 Juni 2008 lalu. Dari sini pula dapat terlihat bagaimana prospek perbankan syariah di Indonesia sangat bagus sehingga harus diiringi pula dengan kemajuan perkembangan produk perbankan agar mampu bersaing dengan industri perbankan konvensional serta mampu memenuhi kebutuhan transaksi nasabah dewasa ini.
Islam sebagai agama universal dan komprehensif pun memahami betul bagaimana kebutuhan manusia. Sejarah menceritakan banyak cara yang dilakukan oleh nabi Muhammad SAW beserta para sahabat hingga tabi’in dalam berniaga. Islam juga memberikan instrumen-instrumen bersifat teknis praktis berupa akad. Diantaranya akad-akad itu adalah jual beli dalam bentuk ”salam”.

BOOK: Decision Making with Dependence and Feedback, The Analytic Network Process

This book is a clear example of the importance of rethink the teory and practice of decision making at governmental and enterprise level. It explains in technical and practical form the underlying theory for the systemic analysis of tangible and intangible factors.

In spite of the mathematical rigor that the author unfolds, the form as it quantifies the important inherent tangible elements to the complex situations, the neural basis of judgment in the decision making process and even his bond with the physics, makes of this book a remarkable advance for the decision theory . The decision situations usually involve benefits, costs, opportunities and risks. The ANP is a form to correctly approximate the uncertainty in the decision making process. 

This book presents the method of Analytic Network Process for decision making. This book is the reference book of the ANP but it is a pity that it is written without thinking about the reader. The book has some math in it but what makes it difficult to read is trying to find the topic structuring through the text the author chose to explain those concepts. You have to read and re-read it before grasping the method.
 
 As someone said this book is useful for validating your own implementation of the method since it has lots and lots of tables in it without helping much to the topic understanding. I better recommend to follow the book by reading this tutorial(...) . It will best settle ideas. 

Selasa, 12 Maret 2013

Tentang Super Decisions

The Super Decisions software is used for decision-making with dependence and feedback. It implements the Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP, and the Analytic Network Process, ANP. Both use the same fundamental prioritization process based on deriving priorities by making judgments on pairs of elements, or obtaining priorities by normalizing direct measurements. In the AHP the decision elements are arranged in a hierarchic decision structure from the goal to the criteria to the alternatives of choice, while in the ANP the decision elements are grouped in clusters, one of which contains the alternatives, which the others contain the criteria, or stakeholders or other decision elements. 

In the ANP there is not a specific goal element, rather the priorities are determined in a relative framework of influences and the prioritization of the alternatives is implicitly understood to be with respect to whatever the network is about: the decision concern. The clusters are arranged into a network with links among the elements, or sometimes into multiple tiers of elements such as when a problem is decomposed into Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks. Most decision-making methods including the AHP assume independence: between the criteria and the alternatives, or among the criteria or among the alternatives. The ANP is not limited by such assumptions. It allows for all possible and potential dependencies.